BoG 2022 financial results…Matters arising



The financial results of the Bank of Ghana for the year 2022 raise serious concerns about the institution’s management and financial stability. With significant losses and a deteriorating equity position, combined with excessive monetary financing and an inefficient investment portfolio, it is evident that the bank has been mismanaged. In this article, I will delve into the key issues surrounding the bank’s mismanagement and explore the implications for Ghana’s financial system.

  1. State of Capital and Equity Position

The financial statements reveal a worrying trend in the capital and equity position of the Bank of Ghana. In 2022, the bank recorded a substantial loss of GH¢60.81 billion, compared to a profit of GH¢1.24 billion in the previous year. This drastic decline indicates that the bank’s operations have been poorly managed, leading to significant financial losses.

Additionally, the decline in net worth position, with total liabilities exceeding total assets by GH¢54.52 billion, is a grave concern. The surplus recorded in 2021 has turned into a substantial deficit in 2022, indicating a severe erosion of the bank’s equity base.

2. Excessive Monetary Financing of the Government’s Budget

One of the critical factors contributing to the Bank of Ghana’s mismanagement is its involvement in excessive monetary financing of the Government of Ghana’s budget. The bank’s participation in the Domestic Debt Exchange Program (DDEP) resulted in significant impairments of government securities holdings, amounting to GH¢48.45 billion. This exchange program was likely implemented to manage the government’s debt burden, but it has had adverse effects on the bank’s financial health.

By excessively financing the government’s budget, the Bank of Ghana has exposed itself to high risks, leading to potential losses and impacting its overall solvency.

3. Investment Portfolio and Operating Cost Inefficiency

The Bank of Ghana’s investment portfolio has proven to be inefficient, as evidenced by the GH¢6.12 billion impairment of loans and advances granted to Quasi-government and financial institutions. These losses indicate that the bank may have made risky and unwise investment decisions, leading to financial exposure and a significant drag on its financial performance.

Furthermore, the net exchange loss of GH¢5.27 billion caused by currency depreciation reflects the bank’s lack of effective risk management strategies. Currency fluctuations are a common challenge, but the bank’s inability to mitigate these losses indicates a lack of prudence in managing its foreign exchange positions.

4. Policy Solvency and Recapitalization Needs

Given the Bank of Ghana’s precarious financial position, there is a pressing need for policy solvency and recapitalization measures. The central bank should focus on restoring its equity base, strengthening its risk management practices, and reassessing its investment strategies to mitigate potential losses.

Further Financial Result Analysis

Operating Income and Expenses Discrepancy:

Upon analysing the Consolidated and Separate Statement of Profit or Loss, one of the key areas that signal mismanagement is the significant discrepancy between operating income and operating expenses. In 2022, the Bank of Ghana recorded an operating income of GH¢5.97 billion for the Group, whereas the operating expenses amounted to a staggering GH¢66.86 billion. This indicates a substantial mismatch between the income generated and the expenses incurred, resulting in a massive operating loss of GH¢60.89 billion.

The magnitude of this operating loss raises serious concerns about the bank’s ability to manage its operations efficiently. Such a substantial loss indicates a failure in cost control, ineffective revenue generation, and poor financial planning.

Impairment Losses:

The financial statements also highlight substantial impairment losses on loans and advances as well as on securities. In 2022, the bank recorded impairment losses of GH¢6.12 billion on loans and advances and a staggering GH¢48.42 billion on securities. These impairments are significantly higher than the previous year’s figures, indicating a substantial deterioration in asset quality.

High impairment losses suggest that the Bank of Ghana may have extended credit to borrowers with high credit risk or invested in securities with heightened default risks. This indicates a lack of prudence in the bank’s lending and investment decisions, reflecting a failure in risk assessment and portfolio management.

Interest Expense and Charges:

The interest expense and similar charges incurred by the bank in 2022 amounted to GH¢3.27 billion for the Group. This figure is substantially higher than the previous year’s interest expense, indicating that the bank may be facing challenges in managing its liabilities and debt obligations.

A sharp increase in interest expense suggests that the Bank of Ghana might have taken on costly debt or faced difficulty in refinancing its liabilities at favorable terms. This could be a result of inadequate financial planning and a lack of foresight in managing the bank’s financial structure.

Currency Issue Expenses:

Another red flag is the significant currency issue expenses of GH¢336.94 million incurred by the bank in 2022. Currency issue expenses refer to the costs associated with producing and managing currency, including printing and distribution.

Such a large amount of currency issue expenses indicates inefficiencies in managing the country’s currency supply chain. Proper oversight and cost control mechanisms should be in place to ensure that currency issue expenses are minimized.


The financial results of the Bank of Ghana for the year 2022 reveal clear signs of mismanagement. The substantial operating loss, high impairment losses, increased interest expenses, and significant currency issue expenses all point to poor financial planning, risk management, and cost control.

Addressing these issues will require a comprehensive review of the bank’s operations and financial decision-making processes. It is essential for the Bank of Ghana to implement robust risk assessment procedures, improve its asset quality, and exercise prudence in lending and investment activities. Additionally, the bank must prioritize effective cost control measures to minimize expenses and improve its financial performance.

Without swift and effective action to address these mismanagement issues, the Bank of Ghana’s financial stability and credibility may continue to be at risk, which could have broader implications for Ghana’s financial system and economy.

The writer is an Economic Policy & Financial Analyst

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