Daily school meals must be prioritized in school reopening plans advise United Nations agencies, WFP and UNICEF
Around the world more than 39 billion in-school meals have been missed globally since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic due to school closures, according to a new report released today by the UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti and the World Food Programme (WFP).
COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom notes that 370 million children worldwide – many of whom are reliant on school meals as a key source of their daily nutrition – have missed 40 per cent of in-school meals, on average, since COVID-19 restrictions shuttered classrooms.
“Despite clear evidence that schools are not primary drivers of COVID-19 infections, millions of children are facing school closures around the world,” said UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore.
“Children who depend on schools for their daily meals are not only losing out on an education but also on a reliable source of nutrition. As we respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and await vaccine distribution, we must prioritize the reopening of schools and take action to make them as safe as possible, including through renewed investments in proven infection prevention measures like clean water and soap in every school around the world.”
Latest estimates show that 24 million schoolchildren are at risk of dropping out of school due to the pandemic – reversing progress made in school enrolment in recent decades.
School feeding programmes can provide incentives for the most vulnerable children to return to school.
“Missing out on nutritious school meals is jeopardizing the futures of millions of the world’s poorest children. We risk losing a whole generation,” said WFP Executive Director David Beasley. “We must support governments to safely reopen schools and start feeding these children again. For many, the nutritious meal they get in school is the only food they will receive all day.”
Situation in Ghana
In Ghana, data provided by the Ghana School Feeding Programme, under the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection, shows that, whilst government provided meals for JHS 3 and SHS 3 students, under the Government of Ghana COVID-19 response plan, as they returned to school to prepare and write their final exams, more than 2.9 million children who were entitled to school meals, missed out for up to ten months.
For many vulnerable children, this daily meal is an important part of getting access to sufficient calories and helping them to concentrate and learn in school. The absence of these meals, therefore, is a threat to the overall wellbeing and development of many vulnerable children.
Furthermore, approximately three million adolescent girls aged between 10 and 19 years – who were already experiencing high rates of anaemia prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Ghana – were not able to access their weekly iron-folic acid supplementation, leading to a potential roll-back of recent progress made on reducing anaemia rates amongst girls.
During the pandemic, there has been a 30 per cent overall reduction in the coverage of essential nutrition services including school feeding, micronutrient supplementation, and nutrition promotion programmes in low- and middle-income countries, as well as programmes for the treatment of severe malnutrition in children. During nationwide lockdowns in some countries, all school feeding programmes were cancelled.
Schools meals are not only vital in ensuring children’s nutrition, growth and development, they also provide a strong incentive for children – especially girls and those from the poorest and most marginalized communities – to return to school once restrictions are lifted. The longer children are out of school, the greater the risk that they will drop out of education altogether. Girls face the added risk of forced transactional sex or early marriage. The worst-hit areas during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa saw rising food insecurity in countries already facing high levels of malnutrition. This same trend has already been seen in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic including in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
WFP has been supporting governments to adapt their school meals programmes during school closures. The report notes that more than 70 countries have delivered take-home rations, cash transfers or food vouchers, providing a valuable, interim solution for millions of children. In the first 9 months of 2020, more than 13 million schoolchildren received WFP school-based support as compared to 17.3 million the previous year.
Since the start of the pandemic, UNICEF has supported national governments to maintain the continuity of nutrition services for school-age children and adolescents. In 2020, nearly 25 million school-age children and adolescents benefitted from programmes for the prevention of anaemia. Tailored to context, most of these programmes combined nutrition education and counselling, supplementation with iron and other essential micronutrients and deworming prophylaxis.
Where schools are still closed, UNICEF and WFP are urging governments to prioritise their reopening while making sure that the health, food and nutritional needs of children are met through comprehensive, high-quality school feeding programmes.